Introduction in this work include some conceptions that arose within modern philosophy that are considered representative of the way in which the topic of itself, until it reaches the contributions of contemporary philosophers who abandoned the traditional way in which this topic has been addressed leaning by a new interpretation which is called I narrative has dealt. From the philosophical point of view, it starts with Descartes and his interpretation of itself as res cogitans and culminate with Paul Ricoeur with his interpretation of itself as interlaced in the narratives of others. In this sense, the itself would be not seen already as an abstract point of convergence but as something more concrete but offset. This is expected to provide a succinct overview of how the theme within Western philosophy has arisen. However, the work will not stop in the descriptive aspect and phenomenological but which will analyse the phenomenon of self explanatory hypothesis from the contributions of psychology, neuroscience and the cognitive sciences, since the ultimate purpose of this work is rehearsing an explanatory hypothesis I narrative (1) from these last ones. This hypothesis, broadly speaking, points out that the self narrative is a form of cognition of itself mediated by the social environment, i.e., is a situated cognition that functions as a mechanism to negotiate with that environment. The self and the question of what is discussed below three modern authors whose perspectives on the self can be placed within the interest by revealing its essence as substance or thing itself. Is within this interest that the problem of self is confined to the problem of answering what is the self? Responses from the authors differ in description and certain qualities that are attributed to the same if, however, all of them are wrestling with the task of demonstrating the ability to admit or reject its existence as a real entity.